Authors & Editors

The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology acknowledges the valuable contributions from each of the following individuals:

ATO Editorial Panel 2017-18

Chair

Patti Grota, PhD, CNS-M-S, CIC, FAPIC
Assistant Professor of Nursing

Infection Prevention and Patient Safety Consultant
Department of Health Restoration and Care Systems Management
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Panel Members

Vicki Allen, MSN, RN, CIC, FAPIC
Director, Infection Prevention & Control

CaroMont Regional Medical Center
Gastonia, NC

Kelley Boston, MPH, CIC, CPHQ, FAPIC
Senior Associate

Infection Prevention & Management Associates
Houston, TX

Amelia Bumsted, DNP, RN, CRRN, CIC, FAPIC
Manager, Infection Control Section

Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital
Hines, IL

Ranekka Dean, PhD, RN, CIC, FAPIC
Assistant Director – Infection Prevention

Mount Sinai Hospital
New York, NY

Meredith Hotchkiss, MN, RN
Regional Manager, EVS

Trinity Health
Boise, ID

Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor

Jefferson School of Nursing
Philadelphia, PA

Editors of APIC Text, 4th Edition

Clinical Editor

Patti Grota, PhD, CNS-M-S, CIC, FAPIC
Assistant Professor of Nursing

Infection Prevention and Patient Safety Consultant
Department of Health Restoration and Care Systems Management
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Section Editors

Vicki Allen, MSN, RN, CIC, FAPIC
Director, Infection Prevention & Control

CaroMont Regional Medical Center
Gastonia, NC

Kelley Boston, MPH, CIC, CPHQ, FAPIC
Senior Associate

Infection Prevention & Management Associates
Houston, TX

Amelia Bumsted, DNP, RN, CRRN, CIC, FAPIC
Manager, Infection Control Section

Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital
Hines, IL

Laurie J. Conway, RN, MPhil, CIC

Columbia University School of Nursing
New York, NY

Lynn Slonim Fine, PhD, MPH, CIC

Infection Prevention Program
University of Rochester Medical Center
Rochester, NY

Christopher E. Florez, MPH, CIC
Program Director, EPIC Course

383rd Training Squadron
Joint Base Fort Sam Houston, TX

Heather M. Gilmartin, PhD, NP
Research Nurse Scientist

Denver/Seattle Center of Innovation for Veteran-centered and Value Driven Care
VA Eastern Colorado Healthcare System
Adjunct Faculty, University of Colorado
Colorado School of Public Health & The College of Nursing
Denver, CO

Beth Ann Kavanagh, MT(ASCP), MS, MBA, CIC
Director, Infection Control and Prevention

University Health System
San Antonio, TX

Rebecca Larson, MPH
Epidemiologist

Eagle County Public Health & Environment
Eagle, CO

Jeanette Lepinski, MSN, RN, CIC
Director of Infection Prevention & Control

Sinai Health System
Chicago, IL

Shilla Patel, OD, CIC
Infection Preventionist III

Infection Prevention/Clinical Epidemiology Department
UC San Diego Health System
La Jolla, CA

Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor

Jefferson School of Nursing
Philadelphia, PA

Authors

Vicki Allen, MSN, RN, CIC, FAPIC
Director, Infection Prevention & Control

CaroMont Regional Medical Center
Gastonia, NC

Anucha Apisarnthanarak, MD
Associate Professor

Division of Infectious Diseases
Thammasat University Hospital
Pratumthani, Thailand

Joann Archer, BTech MA
Educator/Consultant

Provincial Infection Control Network
Prince George, British Columbia, Canada

Lennox K. Archibald, MD, PhD, FRCP, DTM&H
Hospital Epidemiologist

Malcom Randall VA Medical Center
Gainesville, FL

Kathleen Meehan Arias, MS, MT, SM, CIC
Director

Arias Infection Control Consulting, LLC
Crownsville, MD

Forest W. Arnold, DO, MSc, FIDSA
Assistant Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases

University of Louisville
Hospital Epidemiologist
University of Louisville Hospital
Louisville, KY

Hilary Babcock, MD
Instructor, Infectious Diseases

Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis, MO

Tina Bair, BSN, RN, CIC
Manager, Infection Prevention and Control

Akron Children's Hospital
Akron, OH

Gio Baracco, MD, FACP
Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine

Division of Infectious Diseases
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Veterans Affairs Healthcare System
Miami, FL

Judene Bartley, MS, MPH, CIC
Vice President, Epidemiology Consulting Services Inc.

Beverly Hills, MI

Karsten Becker
Professor of Medical Microbiology

Institute of Medical Microbiology
University Hospital of Münster
Westfalian Wilhelms-University of Münster
Münster, Germany

Catherine Berends, RN, BSN, MS
Infection Control Practitioner

Sinai Health System
Chicago, IL

Wendy Berg, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Infection Prevention and Control
Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota
St. Paul, MN

Sara Bienvenu, RN, MSN
Clinical Manager, Infection Prevention

Clinical Services Group
HCA Hospital Corporation of America
Nashville, TN

Mandy Bodily-Bartrum, RN, MPH, CIC
Director of Quality and Risk Management

Vibra Hospital & Vista View Care Center
Thornton, CO

Kelley Boston, MPH, CIC, CPHQ, FAPIC
Senior Associate

Infection Prevention & Management Associates
Houston, TX

Jason E. Bowling, MD
Assistant Professor

Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases
Director of Hospital Epidemiology, University Health System
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

David M. Brewer, DVM, DACVIM (Neurology)
Neurologist/Neurosurgeon

Bush Veterinary Neurology Service
Leesburg, VA

Michael Brown, PhD
Professor Emeritus

McDaniel College
Westminster, MD

Amelia Bumsted, DNP, RN, CRRN, CIC, FAPIC
Manager, Infection Control Section

Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital
Hines, IL

Elizabeth A. Campbell, BS, RN, CIC
Infection Control Coordinator

Reston Hospital Center
Reston, VA

Harriette Carr, RN, MSN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Carmichael, CA

Ruth Carrico, PhD, RN, FSHEA, CIC
Associate Professor

Division of Infectious Diseases
School of Medicine
University of Louisville
Louisville, KY

Carol E. Chenoweth, MD

Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
Clinical Professor, Department of Epidemiology
University of Michigan Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Teresa Chou, MPH, MS, RN, CIC
Manager, Epidemiology and Infection Prevention and Control

Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center
Chicago, IL

William E. Coll, M, PUB, AFF, BA, LP
Program Manager - Infection Preventionist

Austin/Travis County EMS
Austin, TX

Colonel, USAF, DC (ret.)

Dental Infection Prevention and Control Consultant
Northville, MI

David K.C. Cooper, MD, PhD
Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Pittsburgh, PA

Christopher J. Crnich, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Section of Infectious Diseases
University of Wisconsin Medical School
Infection Control Department
Center for Trauma and Life Support
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
Madison, WI

Karen Cromwell, RN, MSM, CIC
Deputy Chief, Infection Prevention and Control Service

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center

Ruth Curchoe, RN, MSN, CIC
Infection Prevention Consultant

Hilton, NY

Stephen D. Cutter, MBA, HFDP,CHFM, SASHE
Director of Facilities

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Lebanon, NH

Kathleen (Kit) Darling, MS, CIC
Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital

Texas A & M University
College Station, TX

Michelle Day, MSN, BSN, RN, CGRN
Team Leader Comprehensive Liver Center

Hartford Hospital 
Hartford, CT

Kim M. Delahanty, BSN, MBA/HCM, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention and Control and Epidemiology

UCSD Healthcare
San Diego, CA

Donnie Diaz, MPA
Sr. Management Analyst (Epi Program Manager)

San Antonio Metropolitan Health District
San Antonio, TX

Linda Dickey, RN, MPH, CIC
Director, Epidemiology & Infection Prevention

UC Irvine Health
Orange, CA

Margaret A. Dudeck, MPH, CPH
Epidemiologist

Surveillance Branch
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA

Melissa Dyson, DVM, MS, DACLAM
Clinical Assistant Professor

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, MI

Jonathan R. Edwards, MStat
Research Mathematical Statistician

Lead, Statistics Team
Surveillance Branch
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA

Larysa M. Fedoriw, MPH
Healthcare Epidemiology and Infection Prevention

Northwestern Medicine
Chicago, IL

Carolyn Fiutem, BS, MT(ASCP), CIC
Infection Prevention Officer

Tri-Health
Cincinnati, OH

Annemarie Flood, RN, BSN, CIC
Infection Prevention Program Manager

City of Hope
Duarte, CA

Marie Fornof, RN, BSN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

National Jewish Health
Denver, CO

Janet Franck, RN, MBA, CIC
Infection Preventionist/Consultant

Chicago, IL

Candace Friedman, MPH, CIC
Project Manager/Office of Clinical Safety

University of Michigan Hospitals and Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Donald E. Fry, MD
Adjunct Professor of Surgery

 Northwestern University
Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, IL

Bruce Gamage, RN, BSN, CIC
IC Consultant

 BC Centre for Disease Control
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Sylvia Garcia-Houchins, RN, MBA, CIC
Director, Infection Control Program

University of Chicago Medical Center
Chicago, IL

Karen S. Geismar, MS, RD, LD, CNSC
Lecturer, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Texas A&M University
College Station, TX

Joan Godich, BSN, RN
Nurse Consultant

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, MD

Angella M. Goetz, RN, MNEd, CIC
Senior Consultant

Special Pathogens Laboratory
Pittsburgh, PA

Linda Goss, BS, MSN, APRN-NP, BC, CIC, COHN-S
Infection Preventionist

Norton Brownsboro Hospital
Infectious Disease Nurse Practitioner
Norton Infectious Disease Specialists
Louisville, KY

Elicia Greene, RN, MS, CIC
Assistant Chief, Infection Control

Central Texas Healthcare System
Temple, TX

Marguerite Gribogiannis, BS, MPA, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Advocate Lutheran General Hospital
Park Ridge, IL

Patti Grota, PhD, CNS-M-S, CIC, FAPIC
Assistant Professor of Nursing

Infection Prevention and Patient Safety Consultant
Department of Health Restoration and Care Systems Management
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Darragh Halpenny, MB BCh BAO, MRCPI, FFRRCSI
Department of Radiology

Tallaght Hospital
Dublin, Ireland

Nancy Harless, MPH, BSN
IC Practitioner

Gaston Memorial Hospital
Gastonia, NC

Patricia L. Harris, MSN, RN, CIC
Nurse Manager

Department of Veterans Affairs
Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System
Pittsburgh, PA

Janet Hass, PhD, RN, CIC
Director of Infection Prevention & Control

Westchester Medical Center
New York, NY

Cara Hausler, MPH
Senior Epidemiologist (STD, HIV, TB)

San Antonio Metropolitan Health District
San Antonio, TX

Ann Henry, BSN, MA, CIC
Sr. Infection Control Coordinator

Blount Memorial Hospital
Maryville, TN

Susanna Leal Hernandez, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Children's Hospital of San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Carolyn T. A. Herzig, MS
Project Director, Columbia University School of Nursing

PhD Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University
New York, NY

Kimberly M. Hinckley, RN, BSN, CIC
Senior Infection Control Coordinator

Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Buffalo, NY

Jill E. Holdsworth, MS, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Inova Mount Vernon Hospital
Alexandria, VA

Lori K. Irwin, RN, MSN, CNS
Professional Practice Leader

Women and Children's Services
Oregon Health and Sciences University
Portland, OR

Pamela Iwamoto, MSN, RN, CIC
Senior Clinical Case Manager

University of New Mexico College of Nursing
Albuquerque, NM

Julie Jefferson, RN, MPH, CIC
Director, Epidemiology and Infection Control

Rhode Island Hospital
Providence, RI

Chetan Jinadatha, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor, Texas A & M Health Science Center

Chief, Infectious Diseases Division
Central Texas Veterans Health Care System
Temple, TX

Keith St. John, MS, MT(ASCP), CIC
Director, Clinical Epidemiology

 Pharmacy OneSource - Sentri7
Wolters Kluwer Health
Bellevue, WA

Lewis Johnson, MS CIH
Industrial Hygienist

Lee Memorial Health System
Fort Myers, FL

Dawn Jourdan, RN, BSN
Clinical Quality Coordinator

The Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, NE

Eric S. Kastango, MBA, RPh, FASHP
Principal-CEO

Clinical IQ, LLC
Madison, NJ

Beth Ann Kavanagh, MT(ASCP), MS, MBA, CIC
Director, Infection Control and Prevention

University Health System
San Antonio, TX

Robert R. Kelley, PhD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Assistant Director of Data Management and Analysis
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Division of Infectious Diseases
Clinical and Translational Research Support Center
Louisville, KY

Irena Kenneley, PhD, APRN-BC, CIC
Assistant Professor

Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, OH

Patricia C. Kienle, RPh, MPA, FASHP
Director of Accreditation and Medication Safety

 Cardinal Health Phamacy Solutions
Wilkes-Barre, PA

Sharron Knox, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Control Coordinator

Specialty Hospital Jacksonville
Jacksonville, FL

Kathleen Kohut, RN, MS, CIC, CNOR
Director of Infection Prevention

Cone Health
Greensboro, NC

Hong Kuan Kok, MB BCh BAO, BMedSci, MRCPI, MRCP(UK)
Department of Radiology

Tallaght Hospital
Dublin, Ireland

Robin Köck, MD
Institute of Hygiene

University Hospital of Münster
Westfalian Wilhelms-University of Münster
Münster, Germany

Eric Lee, MT(ASCP)
CaroMont Regional Medical Center

Gastonia, NC

Jeanette Lepinski, MSN, RN, CIC
Director of Infection Prevention & Control

Sinai Health System
Chicago, IL

Jan Lienau, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist II

Greer Medical Campus
Greenville Health System
Greer, SC

Peggy Prinz Luebbert, MS, MT(ASCP), CIC, CHSP
Healthcare Interventions, Inc.

Omaha, NE

Belinda Ostrowsky MD, MPH
Director of Antimicrobial Stewardship

Associate Professor of Medicine
Montefiore Medical Center
Bronx, NY

Emily A. Ackiss MPH, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Department of Infection Prevention and Control
Oregon Health and Science University
Portland, OR

Dennis G. Maki, MD
Ovid O. Meyer Professor of Medicine

Section of Infectious Diseases
University of Wisconsin Medical School
Infection Control Department
Center for Trauma and Life Support
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
Madison, WI

Nedra D. Marion, RN, BSN, MPA, CIC
Manager, Department of Infection Control and Epidemiology

The Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, NE

Carol McLay, DrPH, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Prevention Consultant

Lexington, KY

Nancy Mendicino, RN, MSN, CIC
ICP Director

Christus Santa Rosa Health Care
San Antonio, TX

Darlene Miller, DHSc, MPH, MA, SM (NRM, ASCP), MT (ASCP), CIC
Research Associate Professor

Department of Ophthalmology
Scientific Director
Abrams Ocular Microbiology Laboratory
Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital/Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Miami, FL

Sonia Miller, RN, BSN, MSN, CIC
Chief, Infection Prevention & Control

Fort Belvoir Community Hospital
Fort Belvoir, VA

John A. Molinari, PhD
Director of Infection Control

The Dental Advisor
Ann Arbor, MI

Elizabeth Monsees, RN, MSN, MBA, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics
Kansas City, MO

Julia Moody, MS SM(ASCP)
Clinical Director, Infection Prevention

Clinical Services Group
HCA Hospital Corporation of America
Nashville, TN

Gloria Morrell, RN, MS, MSN, CIC
Nurse Consultant

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA

Linda M. Mundy, MD, PhD
Director, Worldwide Epidemiology

Research and Development, GlaxoSmithKline
Collegeville, PA

Rebecca J. Murphy, RN, MSN, CNOR
Loyola University Medical Center

Maywood, IL

Deborah M. Nadzam, PhD, RN, BB, FAAN
Practice Leader, Patient Safety Services

Joint Commission Resources
Oak Brook, IL

Casey P. Neary, DVM
Veterinary Neurology/Neurosurgery

Bush Veterinary Neurology Service
Leesburg, VA

Doris Neumeyer, RN, BSN
Administrative Nurse Clinician

William Beaumont Hospital-Troy
Troy, MI

Deborah M. Nihill, RN, MSA, CIC, CPHQ
Director, Quality Management

Mercy Hospital
St. Louis. MO

Ann-Christine Nyquist, MD, MSPH
Medical Director, Infection Prevention and Control

Children's Hospital Colorado
Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology
University of Colorado School of Medicine
Aurora, CO

Russell N. Olmsted, MPH, CIC
Epidemiologist, Infection Control Services

Saint Joseph Mercy Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Ynes Ortega, PhD, MPH
Associate Professor

Center for Food Safety
University of Georgia
Griffin, GA

William J. Pate, BS, MPH, DPH
Safety Manager, Environment of Care

 University Health System
San Antonio, TX

Thomas F. Patterson, MD, FACP, FIDSA
Professor of Medicine

Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Staff Physician, South Texas Veterans Healthcare System
San Antonio, TX

Sindy M. Paul, MD, MPH, FACPM
Medical Director

Division of HIV, STD, and TB Services
New Jersey Department of Health
Trenton, NJ

Michael A. Pentella, PhD, CIC, D (ABMM)
Director, Bureau of Laboratory Sciences

William A. Hinton State Laboratory Institute
Jamaica Plain, MA

Cheryl Perego, MPH, MT(ASCP), CIC
Supervisor, Infection Control 

University of Texas 
MD Anderson Cancer Center
Houston, TX

Paula Peyrani, MD

Assistant Director, Research Design and Development
Division of Infectious Diseases
University of Louisville
Louisville, Kentucky

Jeanne Pfeiffer, DNP, MPH, RN, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

University of Minnesota School of Nursing
Minneapolis, MN

Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor

Jefferson School of Nursing
Philadelphia, PA

Patricia Posa, RN, BSN, MSA, FAAN
St Joseph Mercy Health System

Ypsilanti, MI

Mary T. Post, RN, MS, CNS, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention

Oregon Patient Safety Commission
Portland, OR

Mary Temple Post, RN, MS, CNS, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention

Oregon Patient Safety Commission
Portland, OR

Arlene Potts, BA, MPH, CIC
Research Scientist

New Jersey State Department of Health
Trenton, NJ

Ruby Puckett, MA, FCSI
President of Foodservice Management Consultants

Program Director for Dietary Manager Training
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL

Michael Anne Preas RN, BSN, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention

University of Maryland Medical Center
Baltimore, MD

Terri Rebmann, PhD, RN, CIC
Associate Professor

Saint Louis University, School of Public Health--Institute for Biosecurity
St. Louis, MO

Robin Roach, BSN, MS, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention and Control

Oregon Health and Science University
Portland, OR

Kathleen Roye-Horn, RN, CIC
Consultant

Horn IP Consulting
Fleming, NJ

Howard Rush, DVM
Associate Professor and Director

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, MI

William A. Rutala, PhD, MPH
Department of Hospital Epidemiology University of North Carolina Health Care

 Division of Infectious Diseases, UNC School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, NC

Kim Schmit-Pokorny, RN, MSN, OCN®
Manager

Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program
Oncology/Hematology Division
University of Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, NE

Sue Sebazco, RN, MBA, CIC
Director of Infection Control and Employee Health & Education

Texas Health
Arlington, TX

Brigid Sheridan, RN, JD
Associate General Council

University Health System
San Antonio, TX

Justin Smyer, MLS(ASCP)CM, MPH, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

University Hospital East
Columbus, OH

Barbara M. Soule, RN, MPA, CIC, FSHEA
Principal, Infection Prevention and Control

Joint Commission Resources
Oak Brook, IL

Valerie Sparks, BSN, CIC
Infection Control Coordinator

Midland Memorial Hospital
Midland, TX

Linda Spaulding, RN, BC, CIC
InCo and Associates International, Inc.

Lakewood Ranch, FL

Steven Spencer, MD FAAP
COL, MC, USA

Chief, Pediatric Ward 3W
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, MD

Patricia W. Stone, PhD, RN
Associate Professor

Columbia University School of Nursing
New York, NY

Janet E. Stout, PhD
Special Pathogens Laboratory

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering
Pittsburgh, PA

Kathryn N. Suh, MD, FRCPC, CIC
Associate Director, Infection Prevention and Control

The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Mary C. Thomas, MBBS, DTM&H, MPH
Senior Epidemiologist

San Antonio Metropolitan Health District
San Antonio, TX

George R. Thompson, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
Co-director, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology v University of California - Davis
Davis, CA

Alexander Tomich, DNP, RN, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention and Control

Rush University Medical Center
Chicago, IL

William C. Torreggiani, MB BCh BAO, MRCPI, FFRRCSI, FRCR
Department of Radiology

Tallaght Hospital
Dublin, Ireland

Samantha M. Tweeten, PhD, MPH
Epidemiologist

Epidemiology and Immunization Services Branch
Health and Human Services Agency
County of San Diego
San Diego, CA

Amanda (Robinson) Valyko, MPH, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Infection Control & Epidemiology
University of Michigan Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Amanda M. Valyko, MPH, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

University of Michigan Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Brian Walesa, MPH, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Sinai Health System
Chicago, IL

Tyler E. Warkentien, MD, FACP
Infectious Disease Department

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, MD

David J. Weber, MD, MPH
Department of Hospital Epidemiology University of North Carolina Health Care

Division of Infectious Diseases, UNC School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, NC

Joan Weber, RN, BSN, CIC
Infection Control Coordinator

Shriners Hospitals for Children-Boston
Boston, MA

Katherine West, BSN, MSEd
Infection Control Consultant

Infection Control/Emerging Concepts Inc
Manassas, VA

Kelly L. West, MS, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Epidemiology
Children's Hospital Colorado
Aurora, CO

Timothy L. Wiemken, PhD, MPH, CIC
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Director, University of Louisville Hospital Epidemiology Program
Assistant Director of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Division of Infectious Diseases
Clinical and Translational Research Support Center
Louisville, KY

Tiffany Wiksten, BSN, RN
Infection Prevention Practitioner

Advocate Christ Medical Center and Advocate Children's Hospital, Oak Lawn
Oak Lawn, IL

Randall D. Wolcott, MD
Founder and President

Southwest Regional Wound Care Center
Lubbock, Texas

Carole Yeung, RN, CIC
Clinical Practice Specialist, Infection Control

Baptist Home Health Network
Little Rock, AR

Martha Young, MS, BS, CSPDT
Consultant

SAVVY Sterilization Solutions
Woodbury, MN

John Anthony Zaia, MD
Professor and Chair, Department of Virology

Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope Medical Center
Duarte, CA

Jolynn Zeller, RN, BSN, CIC
Coordinator, Infection Prevention

Avera St. Luke's
Plymouth, MN

Jose Cadena Zuluaga, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

 Department of Medicine/Infectious Diseases
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Assistant Chief of Infectious Diseases
Medical Director Infection Control
South Texas Veterans Healthcare System
San Antonio, TX

Reviewers

Vicki Allen, MSN, RN, CIC, FAPIC
Director, Infection Prevention & Control

CaroMont Regional Medical Center
Gastonia, NC

Anne Augustin, MLT, CIC
Infection Prevention & Control Coordinator

Headwaters Healthcare Center 
Orangeville, Ontario, Canada

Ruth Belflower, MPH, RN
Infection Preventionist

Hardin Memorial Hospital 
Elizabethtown, KY

Molly Blake, BN, MHS, GNC(C), CIC
Program Director

Winnipeg Regional Health Authority
Winnipeg, Mannitoba, Canada

Sue Boeker, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Greenville Health System
Greenville, SC

Lynette Boland, RNC, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Kosiar Children’s Hospital
Louisville, KY

Judie Bringhurst, RN, MSN, CIC
Ambulatory Care Infection Preventionist/Safety Compliance Officer

University of North Carolina Health System
Chapel Hill, NC

Tania Bubb, RN, MS, CIC
Infection Prevention and Control Practitioner

NYU Langone Medical Center
Mount Vernon, NY

Amelia Bumsted, DNP, RN, CRRN, CIC, FAPIC
Manager, Infection Control Section

Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital
Hines, IL

Lisa Caffery, MS, BSN, RN-BC, CIC
Infection Prevention Coordinator

Genesis Medical Center
Davenport, IO

Harriette Carr, RN, MSN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Carmichael, CA

Barbara Catt, RN, BSN, CIC, Med
Infection Prevention & Control Coordinator

Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre
Keswick, Ontario, Canada

Gwen Cerkowniak, RN, BSN, CIC
Provincial Infection Control Coordinator

Saskatoon Health Region
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Michael Cloughessy, MS, BSEH, REHS, CIC
Senior Infection Control Practitioner

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital
Cincinnati, OH

Dorthea Davis, RPN
Infection Control Officer

Selkirk Mental Health Centre
Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada

Kim M. Delahanty, BSN, MBA/HCM, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention and Control and Epidemiology

UCSD Healthcare
San Diego, CA

Gemma Downham, MPH, CIC
Infection Prevention Epidemiologist

AtlantiCare Regional Medical Center
Pomona, NJ

Brenda Ehlert, MT(ASCP), CIC
Infection Prevention Coordinator

Affinity Health System
Oshkosh, WI

Therese Flood, RN, BSN
Infection Control Nurse

Baptist Hospital East
Louisville, KY

Marie Fornof, RN, BSN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

National Jewish Health
Denver, CO

Gail Fraine, RN, MMHC, BSN, CIC
Director Infection Prevention 

Saint Thomas Midtown Hospital (formerly Baptist Hospital) 
Nashville, TN

Julia Frith, RN, MSN, CIC
Infection Prevention

Kosair Children’s Hospital
Louisville, KY

Melissa Fugate, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Control Coordinator

Baptist Health Louisville
Louisville, KY

Kasey Gambeta, BScN, RN, MN
Infection Control Professional

St. Michael’s Hospital
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Kate Gase, MPH, CIC
Hospital Acquired Infection Reporting Program Regional Representative

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
New York, NY

Patricia Gould, RN, BSN
Manager, Infection Control

Jewish Hospital
Louisville, KY

Patti Grota, PhD, CNS-M-S, CIC, FAPIC
Assistant Professor of Nursing

Infection Prevention and Patient Safety Consultant
Department of Health Restoration and Care Systems Management
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Deborah Harkness, RegN., MScN
Infection Prevention and Control Practitioner

Northumberland Hills Hospital
Cobourg, Ontario, Canada

Eddie Hedrick, BS, MT(ASCP), CIC
Emerging Infections Coordinator

Missouri Dept of Health & Senior Services
Columbia, MO

Crystal Heishman, BSN, RN, CIC, ONC
Infection Preventionist

University of Louisville Healthcare
Louisville, KY

Tricia Herridge, BSC, BEH, CPHI(C)
Public Health Inspector

Alberta Health Services
Camrose, Alberta, Canada

Sally Hess, MPH
Manager Infection Prevention

Fletcher Allen Health Care
Burlington, VT

Steve Hilley, RN
Infection Prevention Coordinator

Yampa Valley Medical Center
Steamboat Springs, CO

Kimberly M. Hinckley, RN, BSN, CIC
Senior Infection Control Coordinator

Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Buffalo, NY

Jill Holdsworth, MS, CIC, EMT-B
Infection Control Practitioner

INOVA Mount Vernon Hospital
Alexandria, VA

Sandra Hyman, RN, MPA, CIC
Infection Prevention Specialist

New York Presbyterian - Columbia University Medical Center
New Rochelle, NY

Frank Myers III, MA, CIC
Infection Preventionist

UC San Diego Healthcare Systems
San Diego, CA

Sharon Jacobs, RN, MS, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Bridgeville, PA

Debra Johnson, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Prevention Nurse

Stanford Hospital & Clinics
Stanford, CA

Marie Kassai, RN, BSN, MPH, CIC
Infection Prevention Consultant

MRK Consulting, LLC
West Paterson, NJ

Irena Kenneley, PhD, APRN-BC, CIC
Assistant Professor

Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, OH

Anjum Khan, MBBS, MSc
Infection Preventionist

St. Michael’s Hospital
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Patrick J. Kleinkort, RN, BSN, MHA, CIC
Epidemiologist

Broward Health Coral Springs
Coral Springs, FL

Jessica Kooger, BSC, HONS, CIC
Infection Control Director

Norfolk General Hospital
Simcoe, Ontario, Canada

Ben Kung, BSc, BTech
Coordinator, Infection Prevention & Control

College of Physicians & Surgeons of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Melanie Lipka, BSc
Client Care Specialist and Trainer

HandyMetrics Corporation
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Michelle Luscombe, RN
Regional Infection Control Nurse

Sun Country Health Region
Wawota, Saskatchewan, Canada

Kathy Aureden MS, MT(ASCP)SI, CIC
Epidemiology Coordinator

Sherman Hospital 
Elgin, IL

Jo Ellen Mackey, RN, BSN, CIC
Infection Prevention Nurse Consultant

Irealand Army Community Health
Ft Knox, KY

Judy McCarten, RN, CIC
Infection Control Professional

Lakeridge Health
Oshawa, Ontario, Canada

Mark McCaulley, MD
Infection Prevention Physician Advisor

Yampa Valley Medical Center
Steamboat Springs, CO

Shirley McDonald, ART, CIC
IPAC Resource Expert

Public Health Ontario
Bath, Ontario, Canada

Jacquelyn McKnight, LPN, RPN, CFCN, NACICP
Council, College of Nurses of Ontario, VP IB/SIG RPNAO

Elliot Lake Foot Care
Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

Carol McLay, DrPH, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Prevention Consultant

Lexington, KY

Caroline Meguerditchian
Infection Control Coordinator

The Perley and Rideau Veterans’ Health Centre
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Elizabeth Monsees, RN, MSN, MBA, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics
Kansas City, MO

Christine Moore, MLT, BSc, CIC
Infection Control Educator

Mount Sinai Hospital
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Pam Nolting, RN, MSN, CIC
Infection Control Professional

University of Louisville Hospital
Louisville, KY

Christopher Okeahialam, MSc, CIC
Infection Prevention and Control Consultant

Public Health Ontario
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Neil Pascoe, RN, BSN, CIC
Nurse Epidemiologist

Texas Department of Health
Austin, TX

Marcia Patrick, RN, MSN, CIC
Infection Prevention Consultant

Tacoma, WA

Luci Perri, RN, MSN, MPH
Infection Prevention Manager

Perri IPC Consulting
Wingate, NC

Ann Marie Pettis, RN, BSN, CIC
Director

University of Rochester Medical Center
Rochester, NY

Michael Anne Preas, RN, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

University of Maryland Medical Center
Baltimore, MD

Kit Reed, RN, BSN, MPH, CIC
Infection Prevention Specialist

Charleston Area Medical Center
Charleston, WV

Kathy Roye-Horn, RN, CIC
Infection Prevention Consultant

Horn IP Consulting
Flemington, NJ

Teresa Rybacki-Anisko, RN, BSC, CIC
Infection Control Professional

Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Deanna Samms, BS, MA, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Charleston Area Medical Center
Charleston, WV

Steve Schweon, RN, MPH, MSN, CIC, HEN
Infection Prevention Consultant

Saylorsburg, PA

Jane Stafford, RN, BN, CIC
Consultant

IPAC Dept of Health, Province of New Brunswick
Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

Charla C. Tully, DO, FACP
Major, USAF, MC

Infectious Disease Physician
Medical Director, Infection Control
San Antonio Military Medical Center Fort Sam Houston
San Antonio, TX

Carole VanAntwerpen, RN, BSN, CIC
Consultant, Infection Prevention and Epidemiology

Clifton Park, NY

Tonya Wagner, BSN
Elms Eye Center

Summerville, SC

William Wagner, ScD, CHCM, CHSP, CHEP
Vice President, Quality Compliance

TSIG Consulting
Marietta, GA

Leslie Walker-Rice, BSCN
Infection Prevention and Control Nurse

Kateri Memorial Hospital Center
Kahnawake, Quebec, Canada

Kathy Ward, RN, BSN, MPH, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Roper Hospital
Charleston, SC

David J. Weber, MD, MPH
Department of Hospital Epidemiology University of North Carolina Health Care

Division of Infectious Diseases, UNC School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, NC

Maria Whitaker, MT, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Cortland Regional Medical Center
Cortland, NY

Sharon Winefordner, RN, BSN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Charleston Area Medical Center
Charleston, WV

Martha Young, MS, BS, CSPDT
Consultant

SAVVY Sterilization Solutions
Woodbury, MN

Nancy Zanotti, RN, BSN, MPH, CIC
Director, Infection Control

Westside Regional Medical Center
Plantation, FL

Kelly Zink, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Kosair Children’s Hospital
Georgetown, ID

Jose Cadena Zuluaga, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

 Department of Medicine/Infectious Diseases
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Assistant Chief of Infectious Diseases
Medical Director Infection Control
South Texas Veterans Healthcare System
San Antonio, TX

Declarations of Conflicts of Interest

Kathleen (Kit) Darling currently serves on the board of directors for Aggieland Pets With A Purpose (President) and Aggieland Humane Society. No financial compensation is received.

Michelle Day is Director of Regional Societies for Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates.

Donald Fry serves on the Board of the Surgical Infection Foundation and is a past president of the organization. He is currently a member of 25 surgical societies and holds no offices for any of these societies at the time of publication. He speaks periodically on surgical infections for Merck and has been a consultant and speaker for Ethicon on two occasions within the last year. At the time of publication, Dr. Fry was organizing a controlled clinical trial for the IrrlMax Company on the use of an innovative application of dilute chlorhexidine in the surgical wound.

Bruce Gamage is currently president of Infection Prevention and Control Canada (IPAC Canada).

Keith St. John is currently employed by Wolters Klower Health.

Patricia Kienle is currently employed by Cardinal Health.

Rebecca Murphy is currently the treasurer for her local Association of periOperative Registered Nurses chapter.

William Pate was elected board member for the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society through April 2014. He is also employed by The University of Texas Medical Branch as an Environmental Health and Safety Consultant.

William Rutala served as a consultant for Advanced Sterilization Products and Clorox.

David J. Weber served as a consultant for Johnson & Johnson and Clorox.

Timothy Wiemken serves on the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines committee, received grant funding from Clorox Healthcare, is on the speaker bureau for Sanofi Pasteur.