Authors & Editors

The Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology acknowledges the valuable contributions from each of the following individuals:

ATO Editorial Panel 2017-18

Chair

Patti Grota, PhD, CNS-M-S, CIC, FAPIC
Assistant Professor of Nursing

Infection Prevention and Patient Safety Consultant
Department of Health Restoration and Care Systems Management
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Panel Members

Vicki Allen, MSN, RN, CIC, FAPIC
Director, Infection Prevention & Control

CaroMont Regional Medical Center
Gastonia, NC

Kelley Boston, MPH, CIC, CPHQ, FAPIC
Senior Associate

Infection Prevention & Management Associates
Houston, TX

Amelia Bumsted, DNP, RN, CRRN, CIC, FAPIC
Manager, Infection Control Section

Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital
Hines, IL

Heather M. Gilmartin, PhD, NP
Research Nurse Scientist

Denver/Seattle Center of Innovation for Veteran-centered and Value Driven Care
VA Eastern Colorado Healthcare System
Adjunct Faculty, University of Colorado
Colorado School of Public Health & The College of Nursing
Denver, CO

Meredith Hotchkiss, MN, RN
Regional Manager, EVS

Trinity Health
Boise, ID

Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor

Jefferson School of Nursing
Philadelphia, PA

Editors of APIC Text, 4th Edition

Clinical Editor

Patti Grota, PhD, CNS-M-S, CIC, FAPIC
Assistant Professor of Nursing

Infection Prevention and Patient Safety Consultant
Department of Health Restoration and Care Systems Management
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Section Editors

Vicki Allen, MSN, RN, CIC, FAPIC
Director, Infection Prevention & Control

CaroMont Regional Medical Center
Gastonia, NC

Kelley Boston, MPH, CIC, CPHQ, FAPIC
Senior Associate

Infection Prevention & Management Associates
Houston, TX

Amelia Bumsted, DNP, RN, CRRN, CIC, FAPIC
Manager, Infection Control Section

Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital
Hines, IL

Laurie J. Conway, RN, MPhil, CIC

Columbia University School of Nursing
New York, NY

Lynn Slonim Fine, PhD, MPH, CIC

Infection Prevention Program
University of Rochester Medical Center
Rochester, NY

Christopher E. Florez, MPH, CIC
Program Director, EPIC Course

383rd Training Squadron
Joint Base Fort Sam Houston, TX

Heather M. Gilmartin, PhD, NP
Research Nurse Scientist

Denver/Seattle Center of Innovation for Veteran-centered and Value Driven Care
VA Eastern Colorado Healthcare System
Adjunct Faculty, University of Colorado
Colorado School of Public Health & The College of Nursing
Denver, CO

Beth Ann Kavanagh, MT(ASCP), MS, MBA, CIC
Director, Infection Control and Prevention

University Health System
San Antonio, TX

Rebecca Larson, MPH
Epidemiologist

Eagle County Public Health & Environment
Eagle, CO

Jeanette Lepinski, MSN, RN, CIC
Director of Infection Prevention & Control

Sinai Health System
Chicago, IL

Shilla Patel, OD, CIC
Infection Preventionist III

Infection Prevention/Clinical Epidemiology Department
UC San Diego Health System
La Jolla, CA

Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor

Jefferson School of Nursing
Philadelphia, PA

Authors

Vicki Allen, MSN, RN, CIC, FAPIC
Director, Infection Prevention & Control

CaroMont Regional Medical Center
Gastonia, NC

Anucha Apisarnthanarak, MD
Associate Professor

Division of Infectious Diseases
Thammasat University Hospital
Pratumthani, Thailand

Joann Archer, BTech MA
Educator/Consultant

Provincial Infection Control Network
Prince George, British Columbia, Canada

Lennox K. Archibald, MD, PhD, FRCP, DTM&H
Hospital Epidemiologist

Malcom Randall VA Medical Center
Gainesville, FL

Kathleen Meehan Arias, MS, MT, SM, CIC
Director

Arias Infection Control Consulting, LLC
Crownsville, MD

Forest W. Arnold, DO, MSc, FIDSA
Assistant Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases

University of Louisville
Hospital Epidemiologist
University of Louisville Hospital
Louisville, KY

Hilary Babcock, MD
Instructor, Infectious Diseases

Washington University School of Medicine
St. Louis, MO

Tina Bair, BSN, RN, CIC
Manager, Infection Prevention and Control

Akron Children's Hospital
Akron, OH

Gio Baracco, MD, FACP
Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine

Division of Infectious Diseases
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Veterans Affairs Healthcare System
Miami, FL

Judene Bartley, MS, MPH, CIC
Vice President, Epidemiology Consulting Services Inc.

Beverly Hills, MI

Karsten Becker
Professor of Medical Microbiology

Institute of Medical Microbiology
University Hospital of Münster
Westfalian Wilhelms-University of Münster
Münster, Germany

Catherine Berends, RN, BSN, MS
Infection Control Practitioner

Sinai Health System
Chicago, IL

Wendy Berg, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Infection Prevention and Control
Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota
St. Paul, MN

Sara Bienvenu, RN, MSN
Clinical Manager, Infection Prevention

Clinical Services Group
HCA Hospital Corporation of America
Nashville, TN

Mandy Bodily-Bartrum, RN, MPH, CIC
Director of Quality and Risk Management

Vibra Hospital & Vista View Care Center
Thornton, CO

Kelley Boston, MPH, CIC, CPHQ, FAPIC
Senior Associate

Infection Prevention & Management Associates
Houston, TX

Jason E. Bowling, MD
Assistant Professor

Department of Medicine/Division of Infectious Diseases
Director of Hospital Epidemiology, University Health System
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Kim M. Boynton-Delahanty, BSN, MBA/HCM, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention and Control and Epidemiology

UCSD Healthcare
San Diego, CA

David M. Brewer, DVM, DACVIM (Neurology)
Neurologist/Neurosurgeon

Bush Veterinary Neurology Service
Leesburg, VA

Michael Brown, PhD
Professor Emeritus

McDaniel College
Westminster, MD

Amelia Bumsted, DNP, RN, CRRN, CIC, FAPIC
Manager, Infection Control Section

Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital
Hines, IL

Jose Cadena, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Department of Medicine/Infectious Diseases
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Assistant Chief of Infectious Diseases
Medical Director Infection Control
South Texas Veterans Healthcare System
San Antonio, TX

José A Cadena, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Division of Infectious Diseases
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Medical Director, Infection Control
South Texas Veterans and Valley Coastal Bend Veterans Health Care Systems
San Antonio, TX

Elizabeth A. Campbell, BS, RN, CIC
Infection Control Coordinator

Reston Hospital Center
Reston, VA

Harriette Carr, RN, MSN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Carmichael, CA

Ruth Carrico, PhD, RN, FSHEA, CIC
Associate Professor

Division of Infectious Diseases
School of Medicine
University of Louisville
Louisville, KY

Carol E. Chenoweth, MD

Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
Clinical Professor, Department of Epidemiology
University of Michigan Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Teresa Chou, MPH, MS, RN, CIC
Manager, Epidemiology and Infection Prevention and Control

Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center
Chicago, IL

William E. Coll, M, PUB, AFF, BA, LP
Program Manager - Infection Preventionist

Austin/Travis County EMS
Austin, TX

Colonel, USAF, DC (ret.)

Dental Infection Prevention and Control Consultant
Northville, MI

David K.C. Cooper, MD, PhD
Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
Pittsburgh, PA

Christopher J. Crnich, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Section of Infectious Diseases
University of Wisconsin Medical School
Infection Control Department
Center for Trauma and Life Support
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
Madison, WI

Karen Cromwell, RN, MSM, CIC
Deputy Chief, Infection Prevention and Control Service

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center

Ruth Curchoe, RN, MSN, CIC
Infection Prevention Consultant

Hilton, NY

Stephen D. Cutter, MBA, HFDP,CHFM, SASHE
Director of Facilities

Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center
Lebanon, NH

Kathleen (Kit) Darling, MS, CIC
Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital

Texas A & M University
College Station, TX

Michelle Day, MSN, BSN, RN, CGRN
Team Leader Comprehensive Liver Center

Hartford Hospital 
Hartford, CT

Donnie Diaz, MPA
Sr. Management Analyst (Epi Program Manager)

San Antonio Metropolitan Health District
San Antonio, TX

Linda Dickey, RN, MPH, CIC
Director, Epidemiology & Infection Prevention

UC Irvine Health
Orange, CA

Margaret A. Dudeck, MPH, CPH
Epidemiologist

Surveillance Branch
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA

Melissa Dyson, DVM, MS, DACLAM
Clinical Assistant Professor

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, MI

Jonathan R. Edwards, MStat
Research Mathematical Statistician

Lead, Statistics Team
Surveillance Branch
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA

Larysa M. Fedoriw, MPH
Healthcare Epidemiology and Infection Prevention

Northwestern Medicine
Chicago, IL

Carolyn Fiutem, BS, MT(ASCP), CIC
Infection Prevention Officer

Tri-Health
Cincinnati, OH

Annemarie Flood, RN, BSN, CIC
Infection Prevention Program Manager

City of Hope
Duarte, CA

Marie Fornof, RN, BSN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

National Jewish Health
Denver, CO

Janet Franck, RN, MBA, CIC
Infection Preventionist/Consultant

Chicago, IL

Candace Friedman, MPH, CIC
Project Manager/Office of Clinical Safety

University of Michigan Hospitals and Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Donald E. Fry, MD
Adjunct Professor of Surgery

 Northwestern University
Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, IL

Bruce Gamage, RN, BSN, CIC
IC Consultant

 BC Centre for Disease Control
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Sylvia Garcia-Houchins, RN, MBA, CIC
Director, Infection Control Program

University of Chicago Medical Center
Chicago, IL

Karen S. Geismar, MS, RD, LD, CNSC
Lecturer, Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Texas A&M University
College Station, TX

Joan Godich, BSN, RN
Nurse Consultant

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, MD

Angella M. Goetz, RN, MNEd, CIC
Senior Consultant

Special Pathogens Laboratory
Pittsburgh, PA

Linda Goss, BS, MSN, APRN-NP, BC, CIC, COHN-S
Infection Preventionist

Norton Brownsboro Hospital
Infectious Disease Nurse Practitioner
Norton Infectious Disease Specialists
Louisville, KY

Elicia Greene, RN, MS, CIC
Assistant Chief, Infection Control

Central Texas Healthcare System
Temple, TX

Marguerite Gribogiannis, BS, MPA, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Advocate Lutheran General Hospital
Park Ridge, IL

Patti Grota, PhD, CNS-M-S, CIC, FAPIC
Assistant Professor of Nursing

Infection Prevention and Patient Safety Consultant
Department of Health Restoration and Care Systems Management
University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Darragh Halpenny, MB BCh BAO, MRCPI, FFRRCSI
Department of Radiology

Tallaght Hospital
Dublin, Ireland

Nancy Harless, MPH, BSN
IC Practitioner

Gaston Memorial Hospital
Gastonia, NC

Patricia L. Harris, MSN, RN, CIC
Nurse Manager

Department of Veterans Affairs
Veterans Affairs Pittsburgh Healthcare System
Pittsburgh, PA

Janet Hass, PhD, RN, CIC
Director of Infection Prevention & Control

Westchester Medical Center
New York, NY

Cara Hausler, MPH
Senior Epidemiologist (STD, HIV, TB)

San Antonio Metropolitan Health District
San Antonio, TX

Ann Henry, BSN, MA, CIC
Sr. Infection Control Coordinator

Blount Memorial Hospital
Maryville, TN

Susanna Leal Hernandez, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Children's Hospital of San Antonio
San Antonio, TX

Carolyn T. A. Herzig, MS
Project Director, Columbia University School of Nursing

PhD Candidate, Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University
New York, NY

Kimberly M. Hinckley, RN, BSN, CIC
Senior Infection Control Coordinator

Roswell Park Cancer Institute
Buffalo, NY

Jill E. Holdsworth, MS, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Inova Mount Vernon Hospital
Alexandria, VA

Lori K. Irwin, RN, MSN, CNS
Professional Practice Leader

Women and Children's Services
Oregon Health and Sciences University
Portland, OR

Pamela Iwamoto, MSN, RN, CIC
Senior Clinical Case Manager

University of New Mexico College of Nursing
Albuquerque, NM

Julie Jefferson, RN, MPH, CIC
Director, Epidemiology and Infection Control

Rhode Island Hospital
Providence, RI

Chetan Jinadatha, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor, Texas A & M Health Science Center

Chief, Infectious Diseases Division
Central Texas Veterans Health Care System
Temple, TX

Keith St. John, MS, MT(ASCP), CIC
Director, Clinical Epidemiology

 Pharmacy OneSource - Sentri7
Wolters Kluwer Health
Bellevue, WA

Lewis Johnson, MS CIH
Industrial Hygienist

Lee Memorial Health System
Fort Myers, FL

Dawn Jourdan, RN, BSN
Clinical Quality Coordinator

The Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, NE

Eric S. Kastango, MBA, RPh, FASHP
Principal-CEO

Clinical IQ, LLC
Madison, NJ

Beth Ann Kavanagh, MT(ASCP), MS, MBA, CIC
Director, Infection Control and Prevention

University Health System
San Antonio, TX

Robert R. Kelley, PhD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Assistant Director of Data Management and Analysis
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Division of Infectious Diseases
Clinical and Translational Research Support Center
Louisville, KY

Irena Kenneley, PhD, APRN-BC, CIC
Assistant Professor

Case Western Reserve University
Cleveland, OH

Patricia C. Kienle, RPh, MPA, FASHP
Director of Accreditation and Medication Safety

 Cardinal Health Phamacy Solutions
Wilkes-Barre, PA

Sharron Knox, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Control Coordinator

Specialty Hospital Jacksonville
Jacksonville, FL

Kathleen Kohut, RN, MS, CIC, CNOR
Director of Infection Prevention

Cone Health
Greensboro, NC

Hong Kuan Kok, MB BCh BAO, BMedSci, MRCPI, MRCP(UK)
Department of Radiology

Tallaght Hospital
Dublin, Ireland

Robin Köck, MD
Institute of Hygiene

University Hospital of Münster
Westfalian Wilhelms-University of Münster
Münster, Germany

Eric Lee, MT(ASCP)
CaroMont Regional Medical Center

Gastonia, NC

Jeanette Lepinski, MSN, RN, CIC
Director of Infection Prevention & Control

Sinai Health System
Chicago, IL

Jan Lienau, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist II

Greer Medical Campus
Greenville Health System
Greer, SC

Peggy Prinz Luebbert, MS, MT(ASCP), CIC, CHSP
Healthcare Interventions, Inc.

Omaha, NE

Belinda Ostrowsky MD, MPH
Director of Antimicrobial Stewardship

Associate Professor of Medicine
Montefiore Medical Center
Bronx, NY

Emily A. Ackiss MPH, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Department of Infection Prevention and Control
Oregon Health and Science University
Portland, OR

Dennis G. Maki, MD
Ovid O. Meyer Professor of Medicine

Section of Infectious Diseases
University of Wisconsin Medical School
Infection Control Department
Center for Trauma and Life Support
University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics
Madison, WI

Nedra D. Marion, RN, BSN, MPA, CIC
Manager, Department of Infection Control and Epidemiology

The Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, NE

Carol McLay, DrPH, BSN, RN, CIC
Infection Prevention Consultant

Lexington, KY

Nancy Mendicino, RN, MSN, CIC
ICP Director

Christus Santa Rosa Health Care
San Antonio, TX

Darlene Miller, DHSc, MPH, MA, SM (NRM, ASCP), MT (ASCP), CIC
Research Associate Professor

Department of Ophthalmology
Scientific Director
Abrams Ocular Microbiology Laboratory
Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital/Bascom Palmer Eye Institute
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Miami, FL

Sonia Miller, RN, BSN, MSN, CIC
Chief, Infection Prevention & Control

Fort Belvoir Community Hospital
Fort Belvoir, VA

John A. Molinari, PhD
Director of Infection Control

The Dental Advisor
Ann Arbor, MI

Elizabeth Monsees, RN, MSN, MBA, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics
Kansas City, MO

Julia Moody, MS SM(ASCP)
Clinical Director, Infection Prevention

Clinical Services Group
HCA Hospital Corporation of America
Nashville, TN

Gloria Morrell, RN, MS, MSN, CIC
Nurse Consultant

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, GA

Linda M. Mundy, MD, PhD
Director, Worldwide Epidemiology

Research and Development, GlaxoSmithKline
Collegeville, PA

Rebecca J. Murphy, RN, MSN, CNOR
Loyola University Medical Center

Maywood, IL

Deborah M. Nadzam, PhD, RN, BB, FAAN
Practice Leader, Patient Safety Services

Joint Commission Resources
Oak Brook, IL

Casey P. Neary, DVM
Veterinary Neurology/Neurosurgery

Bush Veterinary Neurology Service
Leesburg, VA

Doris Neumeyer, RN, BSN
Administrative Nurse Clinician

William Beaumont Hospital-Troy
Troy, MI

Deborah M. Nihill, RN, MSA, CIC, CPHQ
Director, Quality Management

Mercy Hospital
St. Louis. MO

Ann-Christine Nyquist, MD, MSPH
Medical Director, Infection Prevention and Control

Children's Hospital Colorado
Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology
University of Colorado School of Medicine
Aurora, CO

Russell N. Olmsted, MPH, CIC
Epidemiologist, Infection Control Services

Saint Joseph Mercy Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Ynes Ortega, PhD, MPH
Associate Professor

Center for Food Safety
University of Georgia
Griffin, GA

William J. Pate, BS, MPH, DPH
Safety Manager, Environment of Care

 University Health System
San Antonio, TX

Thomas F. Patterson, MD, FACP, FIDSA
Professor of Medicine

Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases
The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
Staff Physician, South Texas Veterans Healthcare System
San Antonio, TX

Sindy M. Paul, MD, MPH, FACPM
Medical Director

Division of HIV, STD, and TB Services
New Jersey Department of Health
Trenton, NJ

Michael A. Pentella, PhD, CIC, D (ABMM)
Director, Bureau of Laboratory Sciences

William A. Hinton State Laboratory Institute
Jamaica Plain, MA

Cheryl Perego, MPH, MT(ASCP), CIC
Supervisor, Infection Control 

University of Texas 
MD Anderson Cancer Center
Houston, TX

Paula Peyrani, MD

Assistant Director, Research Design and Development
Division of Infectious Diseases
University of Louisville
Louisville, Kentucky

Jeanne Pfeiffer, DNP, MPH, RN, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

University of Minnesota School of Nursing
Minneapolis, MN

Monika Pogorzelska-Maziarz, PhD, MPH
Assistant Professor

Jefferson School of Nursing
Philadelphia, PA

Patricia Posa, RN, BSN, MSA, FAAN
St Joseph Mercy Health System

Ypsilanti, MI

Mary T. Post, RN, MS, CNS, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention

Oregon Patient Safety Commission
Portland, OR

Mary Temple Post, RN, MS, CNS, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention

Oregon Patient Safety Commission
Portland, OR

Arlene Potts, BA, MPH, CIC
Research Scientist

New Jersey State Department of Health
Trenton, NJ

Ruby Puckett, MA, FCSI
President of Foodservice Management Consultants

Program Director for Dietary Manager Training
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL

Michael Anne Preas RN, BSN, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention

University of Maryland Medical Center
Baltimore, MD

Terri Rebmann, PhD, RN, CIC
Associate Professor

Saint Louis University, School of Public Health--Institute for Biosecurity
St. Louis, MO

Robin Roach, BSN, MS, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention and Control

Oregon Health and Science University
Portland, OR

Kathleen Roye-Horn, RN, CIC
Consultant

Horn IP Consulting
Fleming, NJ

Howard Rush, DVM
Associate Professor and Director

Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor, MI

William A. Rutala, PhD, MPH
Department of Hospital Epidemiology University of North Carolina Health Care

 Division of Infectious Diseases, UNC School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, NC

Kim Schmit-Pokorny, RN, MSN, OCN®
Manager

Blood and Marrow Transplantation Program
Oncology/Hematology Division
University of Nebraska Medical Center
Omaha, NE

Sue Sebazco, RN, MBA, CIC
Director of Infection Control and Employee Health & Education

Texas Health
Arlington, TX

Brigid Sheridan, RN, JD
Associate General Council

University Health System
San Antonio, TX

Justin Smyer, MLS(ASCP)CM, MPH, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

University Hospital East
Columbus, OH

Barbara M. Soule, RN, MPA, CIC, FSHEA
Principal, Infection Prevention and Control

Joint Commission Resources
Oak Brook, IL

Valerie Sparks, BSN, CIC
Infection Control Coordinator

Midland Memorial Hospital
Midland, TX

Linda Spaulding, RN, BC, CIC
InCo and Associates International, Inc.

Lakewood Ranch, FL

Steven Spencer, MD FAAP
COL, MC, USA

Chief, Pediatric Ward 3W
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, MD

Patricia W. Stone, PhD, RN
Associate Professor

Columbia University School of Nursing
New York, NY

Janet E. Stout, PhD
Special Pathogens Laboratory

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Pittsburgh, Swanson School of Engineering
Pittsburgh, PA

Kathryn N. Suh, MD, FRCPC, CIC
Associate Director, Infection Prevention and Control

The Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Mary C. Thomas, MBBS, DTM&H, MPH
Senior Epidemiologist

San Antonio Metropolitan Health District
San Antonio, TX

George R. Thompson, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
Co-director, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory
Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology v University of California - Davis
Davis, CA

Alexander Tomich, DNP, RN, CIC
Director, Infection Prevention and Control

Rush University Medical Center
Chicago, IL

William C. Torreggiani, MB BCh BAO, MRCPI, FFRRCSI, FRCR
Department of Radiology

Tallaght Hospital
Dublin, Ireland

Samantha M. Tweeten, PhD, MPH
Epidemiologist

Epidemiology and Immunization Services Branch
Health and Human Services Agency
County of San Diego
San Diego, CA

Amanda (Robinson) Valyko, MPH, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Infection Control & Epidemiology
University of Michigan Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Amanda M. Valyko, MPH, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

University of Michigan Health System
Ann Arbor, MI

Brian Walesa, MPH, CIC
Infection Control Practitioner

Sinai Health System
Chicago, IL

Tyler E. Warkentien, MD, FACP
Infectious Disease Department

Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, MD

David J. Weber, MD, MPH
Department of Hospital Epidemiology University of North Carolina Health Care

Division of Infectious Diseases, UNC School of Medicine
Chapel Hill, NC

Joan Weber, RN, BSN, CIC
Infection Control Coordinator

Shriners Hospitals for Children-Boston
Boston, MA

Katherine West, BSN, MSEd
Infection Control Consultant

Infection Control/Emerging Concepts Inc
Manassas, VA

Kelly L. West, MS, RN, CIC
Infection Preventionist

Epidemiology
Children's Hospital Colorado
Aurora, CO

Timothy L. Wiemken, PhD, MPH, CIC
Assistant Professor of Medicine

Director, University of Louisville Hospital Epidemiology Program
Assistant Director of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
University of Louisville School of Medicine
Division of Infectious Diseases
Clinical and Translational Research Support Center
Louisville, KY

Tiffany Wiksten, BSN, RN
Infection Prevention Practitioner

Advocate Christ Medical Center and Advocate Children's Hospital, Oak Lawn
Oak Lawn, IL

Randall D. Wolcott, MD
Founder and President

Southwest Regional Wound Care Center
Lubbock, Texas

Carole Yeung, RN, CIC
Clinical Practice Specialist, Infection Control

Baptist Home Health Network
Little Rock, AR

Martha Young, MS, BS, CSPDT
Consultant

SAVVY Sterilization Solutions
Woodbury, MN

John Anthony Zaia, MD
Professor and Chair, Department of Virology

Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope Medical Center
Duarte, CA

Jolynn Zeller, RN, BSN, CIC
Coordinator, Infection Prevention

Avera St. Luke's
Plymouth, MN

Reviewers

Vicki Allen, MSN, RN, CIC 
Infection Control Manager 
CaroMont Health 
Gastonia, NC

Anne Augustin, MLT, CIC 
Infection Prevention & Control Coordinator 
Headwaters Healthcare Center 
Orangeville, Ontario, Canada

Kathy Aureden MS, MT(ASCP)SI, CIC
Epidemiology Coordinator 
Sherman Hospital 
Elgin, IL

Ruth Belflower, MPH, RN 
Infection Preventionist 
Hardin Memorial Hospital 
Elizabethtown, KY

Molly Blake, BN, MHS, GNC(C), CIC 
Program Director 
Winnipeg Regional Health Authority 
Winnipeg, Mannitoba, Canada

Sue Boeker, BSN, RN, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
Greenville Health System 
Greenville, SC

Lynette Boland, RNC, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
Kosiar Children’s Hospital 
Louisville, KY

Judie Bringhurst, RN, MSN, CIC 
Ambulatory Care Infection Preventionist/Safety Compliance Officer 
University of North Carolina Health System 
Chapel Hill, NC

Tania Bubb, RN, MS, CIC 
Infection Prevention and Control Practitioner 
NYU Langone Medical Center 
Mount Vernon, NY

Amelia Bumsted, BA, BS, RN, CRRN, CIC 
Infection Control Coordinator 
Marianjoy Rehabilitation Hospital 
Wheaton, IL

Jose Cadena Zuluaga, MD 
Infectious Diseases 
South Texas Veterans Healthcare Administration/University Health Science Center 
San Antonio, TX

Lisa Caffery, MS, BSN, RN-BC, CIC 
Infection Prevention Coordinator 
Genesis Medical Center 
Davenport, IO

Barbara Catt, RN, BSN, CIC, Med 
Infection Prevention & Control Coordinator 
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre 
Keswick, Ontario, Canada

Harriette Carr, RN, MSN, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
Carmichael, CA

Gwen Cerkowniak, RN, BSN, CIC 
Provincial Infection Control Coordinator 
Saskatoon Health Region 
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Michael Cloughessy, MS, BSEH, REHS, CIC 
Senior Infection Control Practitioner 
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital 
Cincinnati, OH

Dorthea Davis, RPN 
Infection Control Officer 
Selkirk Mental Health Centre 
Selkirk, Manitoba, Canada

Kim Delahanty, BSN, MBA/HCM, CIC 
Administrative Director 
UCSD Health System 
San Diego, CA

Gemma Downham, MPH, CIC 
Infection Prevention Epidemiologist 
AtlantiCare Regional Medical Center 
Pomona, NJ

Brenda Ehlert, MT(ASCP), CIC 
Infection Prevention Coordinator 
Affinity Health System 
Oshkosh, WI

Julia Frith, RN, MSN, CIC 
Infection Prevention 
Kosair Children’s Hospital 
Louisville, KY

Therese Flood, RN, BSN 
Infection Control Nurse 
Baptist Hospital East 
Louisville, KY

Marie Fornof, RN, BSN, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
National Jewish Health 
Highlands, CO

Gail Fraine, RN, MMHC, BSN, CIC 
Director Infection Prevention 
Saint Thomas Midtown Hospital (formerly Baptist Hospital) 
Nashville, TN

Melissa Fugate, BSN, RN, CIC 
Infection Control Coordinator 
Baptist Health Louisville 
Louisville, KY

Kate Gase, MPH, CIC 
Hospital Acquired Infection Reporting Program Regional Representative 
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center 
New York, NY

Kasey Gambeta, BScN, RN, MN 
Infection Control Professional 
St. Michael’s Hospital 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Patricia Gould, RN, BSN 
Manager, Infection Control 
Jewish Hospital 
Louisville, KY

Patti Grota, PhD, RN, CNS-M-S, CIC 
Assistant Professor 
Schreiner University 
Kerrville, TX

Deborah Harkness, RegN., MScN 
Infection Prevention and Control Practitioner 
Northumberland Hills Hospital 
Cobourg, Ontario, Canada

Eddie Hedrick, BS, MT(ASCP), CIC 
Emerging Infections Coordinator 
Missouri Dept of Health & Senior Services 
Columbia, MO

Crystal Heishman, BSN, RN, CIC, ONC 
Infection Preventionist 
University of Louisville Healthcare 
Louisville, KY

Tricia Herridge, BSC, BEH, CPHI(C) 
Public Health Inspector 
Alberta Health Services 
Camrose, Alberta, Canada

Sally Hess, MPH 
Manager Infection Prevention 
Fletcher Allen Health Care 
Burlington, VT

Steve Hilley, RN 
Infection Prevention Coordinator 
Yampa Valley Medical Center 
Steamboat Springs, CO

Kimberly Hinckley, RN, BSN, CIC 
Sr. Infection Control Coordinator 
Roswell Park Cancer Institute 
Buffalo, NY

Jill Holdsworth, MS, CIC, EMT-B 
Infection Control Practitioner 
INOVA Mount Vernon Hospital 
Alexandria, VA

Sandra Hyman, RN, MPA, CIC 
Infection Prevention Specialist 
New York Presbyterian - Columbia University Medical Center 
New Rochelle, NY

Sharon Jacobs, RN, MS, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
Bridgeville, PA

Debra Johnson, BSN, RN, CIC 
Infection Prevention Nurse 
Stanford Hospital & Clinics 
Stanford, CA

Marie Kassai, RN, BSN, MPH, CIC 
Infection Prevention Consultant 
MRK Consulting, LLC 
West Paterson, NJ

Irena Kenneley, PhD, APRN-BC, CIC 
Assistant Professor 
Case Western Reserve University 
Cleveland, OH

Anjum Khan, MBBS, MSc 
Infection Preventionist 
St. Michael’s Hospital 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Patrick J. Kleinkort, RN, BSN, MHA, CIC 
Epidemiologist 
Broward Health Coral Springs 
Coral Springs, FL

Jessica Kooger, BSC, HONS, CIC 
Infection Control Director 
Norfolk General Hospital 
Simcoe, Ontario, Canada

Ben Kung, BSc, BTech 
Coordinator, Infection Prevention & Control 
College of Physicians & Surgeons of Alberta 
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

Melanie Lipka, BSc 
Client Care Specialist and Trainer 
HandyMetrics Corporation 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Michelle Luscombe, RN 
Regional Infection Control Nurse 
Sun Country Health Region 
Wawota, Saskatchewan, Canada

Jo Ellen Mackey, RN, BSN, CIC 
Infection Prevention Nurse Consultant 
Irealand Army Community Health 
Ft Knox, KY

Judy McCarten, RN, CIC 
Infection Control Professional 
Lakeridge Health 
Oshawa, Ontario, Canada

Mark McCaulley, MD 
Infection Prevention Physician Advisor 
Yampa Valley Medical Center 
Steamboat Springs, CO

Shirley McDonald, ART, CIC 
IPAC Resource Expert 
Public Health Ontario 
Bath, Ontario, Canada

Jacquelyn McKnight, LPN, RPN, CFCN, NACICP 
Council, College of Nurses of Ontario, VP IB/SIG RPNAO 
Elliot Lake Foot Care 
Elliot Lake, Ontario, Canada

Carol McLay, DrPH, BSN, RN, CIC 
Infection Prevention Consultant 
Lexington, KY

Caroline Meguerditchian 
Infection Control Coordinator 
The Perley and Rideau Veterans’ Health Centre 
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Elizabeth Monsees, RN, MSN, MBA, CIC 
Infection Control Practitioner 
Children’s Mercy Hospitals & Clinics 
Kansas City, MO

Christine Moore, MLT, BSc, CIC 
Infection Control Educator 
Mount Sinai Hospital 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Frank Myers III, MA, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
UC San Diego Healthcare Systems 
San Diego, CA

Pam Nolting, RN, MSN, CIC 
Infection Control Professional 
University of Louisville Hospital 
Louisville, KY

Christopher Okeahialam, MSc, CIC 
Infection Prevention and Control Consultant 
Public Health Ontario 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Neil Pascoe, RN, BSN, CIC 
Nurse Epidemiologist 
Texas Department of Health 
Austin, TX

Marcia Patrick, RN, MSN, CIC 
Infection Prevention Consultant 
Tacoma, WA

Luci Perri, RN, MSN, MPH
Infection Prevention Manager 
Perri IPC Consulting 
Wingate, NC

Ann Marie Pettis, RN, BSN, CIC 
Director 
University of Rochester Medical Center 
Rochester, NY

Michael Anne Preas, RN, CIC 
Infection Control Practitioner 
University of Maryland Medical Center 
Baltimore, MD

Kit Reed, RN, BSN, MPH, CIC 
Infection Prevention Specialist 
Charleston Area Medical Center 
Charleston, WV

Kathy Roye-Horn, RN, CIC 
Infection Prevention Consultant 
Horn IP Consulting 
Flemington, NJ

Teresa Rybacki-Anisko, RN, BSC, CIC 
Infection Control Professional 
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Deanna Samms, BS, MA, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
Charleston Area Medical Center 
Charleston, WV

Steve Schweon, RN, MPH, MSN, CIC, HEN 
Infection Prevention Consultant 
Saylorsburg, PA

Jane Stafford, RN, BN, CIC 
Consultant 
IPAC Dept of Health, Province of New Brunswick 
Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada

Charla C. Tully, DO, FACP 
Major, USAF, MC 
Infectious Disease Physician 
Medical Director, Infection Control 
San Antonio Military Medical Center Fort Sam Houston 
San Antonio, TX

Carole VanAntwerpen, RN, BSN, CIC 
Consultant, Infection Prevention and Epidemiology 
Clifton Park, NY

William Wagner, ScD, CHCM, CHSP, CHEP 
Vice President, Quality Compliance 
TSIG Consulting 
Marietta, GA

Tonya Wagner, BSN 
Elms Eye Center 
Summerville, SC

Leslie Walker-Rice, BSCN 
Infection Prevention and Control Nurse 
Kateri Memorial Hospital Center 
Kahnawake, Quebec, Canada

Kathy Ward, RN, BSN, MPH, CIC 
Infection Control Practitioner 
Roper Hospital 
Charleston, SC

David Weber, MD, MPH, MHA 
Professor of Medicine, Pediatrics, and Epidemiology 
University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill 
Chapel Hill, NC

Maria Whitaker, MT, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
Cortland Regional Medical Center 
Cortland, NY

Sharon Winefordner, RN, BSN, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
Charleston Area Medical Center 
Charleston, WV

Martha Young, MS, BS, CSPDT 
Consultant
SAVVY Sterilization Solutions 
Woodbury, MN

Nancy Zanotti, RN, BSN, MPH, CIC 
Director, Infection Control 
Westside Regional Medical Center 
Plantation, FL

Kelly Zink, RN, CIC 
Infection Preventionist 
Kosair Children’s Hospital 
Georgetown, ID

Declarations of Conflicts of Interest

Kathleen (Kit) Darling currently serves on the board of directors for Aggieland Pets With A Purpose (President) and Aggieland Humane Society. No financial compensation is received.

Michelle Day is Director of Regional Societies for Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates.

Donald Fry serves on the Board of the Surgical Infection Foundation and is a past president of the organization. He is currently a member of 25 surgical societies and holds no offices for any of these societies at the time of publication. He speaks periodically on surgical infections for Merck and has been a consultant and speaker for Ethicon on two occasions within the last year. At the time of publication, Dr. Fry was organizing a controlled clinical trial for the IrrlMax Company on the use of an innovative application of dilute chlorhexidine in the surgical wound.

Bruce Gamage is currently president of Infection Prevention and Control Canada (IPAC Canada).

Keith St. John is currently employed by Wolters Klower Health.

Patricia Kienle is currently employed by Cardinal Health.

Rebecca Murphy is currently the treasurer for her local Association of periOperative Registered Nurses chapter.

William Pate was elected board member for the South Texas Chapter of the Health Physics Society through April 2014. He is also employed by The University of Texas Medical Branch as an Environmental Health and Safety Consultant.

William Rutala served as a consultant for Advanced Sterilization Products and Clorox.

David J. Weber served as a consultant for Johnson & Johnson and Clorox.

Timothy Wiemken serves on the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America guidelines committee, received grant funding from Clorox Healthcare, is on the speaker bureau for Sanofi Pasteur.