Ambulatory Care

Anjali Bisht, MPH, CIC Infection Prevention Manager

Keck Medicine of USC
Los Angeles, CA

Joanne Archer, BTech MA Educator/Consultant

 Provincial Infection Control Network
Prince George, British Columbia, Canada

Bruce Gamage, RN, BSN, CIC IC Consultant

 BC Centre for Disease Control
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Revised Publication:
March 6, 2024 Anjali Bisht, MPH, CIC Infection Prevention Manager

Keck Medicine of USC
Los Angeles, CA

Original Publication:
October 2, 2014
Declarations of Conflicts of Interest:
  • Anjali Bisht was previously an APIC Text Associate Section Editor while authoring the APIC Text Ambulatory Care chapter, however she was not involved in the chapter review process and it did not pose a conflict. She declares no conflicts of interest.
  • Bruce Gamage is currently president of Infection Prevention and Control Canada (IPAC Canada).

Thank you to  Anjali Bisht, MPH, CIC for authoring chapter revisions. Thank you also to the original 2014 chapter authors,  Joanne Archer, BTech MA and  Bruce Gamage, RN, BSN, CIC.


Over the past few decades, healthcare delivery has experienced a shift from inpatient acute care to a variety of outpatient ambulatory and community care settings ranging from physician offices to ambulatory surgery centers. As this shift becomes more prevalent, the risk of acquiring a healthcare-associated infection (HAI) in the ambulatory care settings also increases. Risk factors associated with this increase are the lack of training and knowledge on infection prevention practices to staff, the type and number of invasive procedures performed, and the advancing age and number of comorbidities among patients. Standard precautions remain the basic approach to the prevention of HAIs across healthcare settings. Careful adherence to infection prevention principles adapted for the outpatient arena will minimize infection risks to patients, healthcare personnel, and family members/visitors. This chapter addresses infection prevention and control (IPC) in ambulatory care settings except ambulatory surgery, dialysis, oncology, dental practices, and endoscopy centers, which are all addressed in other chapters.