Neil Rellosa, MD Pediatric Infectious Diseases Physician/HIV Program Director, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics

Nemours Children's Hospital-Delaware, Wilmington, DE

Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Sidney Kimmel Medical College-Thomas Jefferson University

Nancy (Beth) Christy, MT MSHA CIC Infection Prevention Manager

Baptist Health Louisville, Louisville, KY

Revised Publication:
May 7, 2024
Original Publication:
October 2, 2014
Declarations of Conflicts of Interest:
  • Beth Christy is an APIC Text Associate Section Editor and was a handling editor on the work in addition to giving authorship support. She declares no other conflicts of interest
  • Neil Rellosa declares no conflicts of interest.

The APIC Text's team thanks Patti Grota, PhD, CNS-M-S, CIC, FAPIC, for authoring the 2014 HIV/AIDS Chapter. 


In the United States and many other nations, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has transitioned from a life-threatening acute-on-chronic disease with significant morbidity and mortality to a manageable chronic disease. Advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have made acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is stage 3 of an HIV infection, less common. The incidence and prevalence of HIV infections in the United States have declined as access to effective clinical services—including early diagnostic testing, ART, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and postexposure prophylaxis (PEP)—has improved. This chapter presents an overview of the history, epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of HIV infection, as well as information on occupational, legal, and ethical issues relating to HIV and AIDS.