Kelly L. West, MS, RN, CIC Infection Preventionist

Children's Hospital Colorado
Aurora, CO

Ann-Christine Nyquist, MD, MSPH Medical Director, Infection Prevention and Control

Children's Hospital Colorado
Professor of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology
University of Colorado School of Medicine
Aurora, CO

Tina Bair, BSN, RN, CIC Manager, Infection Prevention and Control

Akron Children's Hospital
Akron, OH

Wendy Berg, BSN, RN, CIC Infection Preventionist

Infection Prevention and Control
Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota
St. Paul, MN

Steven Spencer, MD FAAP COL, MC, USA

Chief, Pediatric Ward 3W
Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
Bethesda, MD

Original Publication:
October 2, 2014


The purpose of this chapter is to help the reader understand why children are more susceptible than adults to infections, along with the factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, that may increase this risk even further. The challenges and differences within pediatric infectious disease surveillance are discussed. Vaccine-preventable diseases, respiratory infections, and gastrointestinal infections that have a significant impact on healthcare-associated infection rates are reviewed. The chapter emphasizes strategies for the prevention and control of spread of infectious diseases including differences seen in pediatric and adult populations. Finally, the impact of broad-spectrum antibiotic use and the increasing problem of antibiotic resistance in the pediatric population are reviewed.